NAPP would like to express its revulsion of what is happening in southern Israel by the Hamas terrorists and empathise with all those in Israel, Gaza and back here in Australia who are being traumatised by these shocking events.

In our association we have many members of Jewish faith with personal family and friend connections with people in Israel.  Many have direct links to family members who suffered from the Holocaust.  These current events must rekindle so much distress.  As well there are likely to be psychiatrists with Palestinian connections.  As a community of caring professionals, I hope we can extend the hand of comfort and support to all our colleagues in this situation.

In Australia, there have been antisemitic outbursts by radical groups supporting Hamas like the protest in Sydney at the Opera House on Monday night. These people are reported to have thrown flares at police, and chanted “fuck Israel” and “fuck the Jews” and “gas the Jews”.   I cannot see how these chants can do anything other than inflame hatred.  They should be condemned.  They come along at the same time that Hamas gunmen were reported to have massacred as many as 40 children, many of them beheaded, in an Israeli farm settlement. I can appreciate that all this has made many Jewish Australian citizens very concerned.  A medical colleague, George, has written a poem highlighting this matter.  See below.

I do hope Australian psychiatrists will express support for our Jewish colleagues and I hope the leadership of our medical associations and colleges will make explicit statements of support as well.

Philip Morris (President NAPP).

The day after
A crowd celebrates,
’gas the Jews’.

Sydney, 2023

Poetry for peace

I never met my aunt Zsuzsi
killed in a room filled with gas.
She, the Jew. Aged 9.
Auschwitz, 1944

Poetry for peace
I never met my grandmother, Esther
killed in a room filled with gas.
She, the Jew.
Auschwitz, 1944

Poetry for peace
This day after, I wonder
would the crowd kill me, George?

Poetry for peace
George, the Jew, son of Alice.
Melbourne, 2023


The National Association of Practising Psychiatrists (NAPP) keeps a close eye on social and political events that may affect our members and their patients.  In recent times the horrific attacks on Jewish and other people by the terrorist group Hamas in southern Israel and the ensuing war in Gaza has aroused strong emotions in individuals from all sides of this conflict.  Australia has not been immune to these influences and here we have seen increasing anti-semitic attitudes and behaviour as well as understandable concern for all innocent people caught up in the conflict.  In order to provide context and educational information that might be helpful in understanding these events and their responses as well as the mental health effects of these traumas, we provide on our website a number of resources (see links below).  As time progresses and events change NAPP will provide further relevant information.

Prof Philip Morris AM (president NAPP)

Rabbi Sax narrative cartoon on what is anti-semitism:

The American Psychiatric Association statement on the terrorist attacks:

The American Psychiatric Association condemns the recent terrorist attacks in Israel. Innocent civilians should never have to endure the violence and chaos that happened last weekend. APA sends our support to all those affected in Israel and around the world. We mourn those who were lost and call for the immediate return of all hostages to their families. The scale of this terrorist act and the harm it is causing is unfathomable. Anti-semitism and all forms of prejudice and hatred are unacceptable, and we stand with the Jewish people, now and as always. The brutalities of Hamas must end. It is our firm hope that one day we can see peace between the Israelis and Palestinians and an end to the violence in the Middle East. In response to the violence, loss of life, and trauma caused by the ongoing conflict in Gaza and Israel, the APA expresses its deep concern for all the Israeli, Palestinian and other people impacted. The APA urges that aid to the most vulnerable in the region be top priority. Finally, while we support the First Amendment right to protest, we reject antisemitism and Islamophobia in all its forms.

For those directly impacted, and for those deeply affected around the world, know that these horrifying events may affect your mental health. Resources are available at:


Pivotal Contributions of Jewish Psychiatrists in Shaping Modern Psychiatry

Author: Dr Jacqueline Rakov


In a communication titled “A message regarding the Gaza conflict,” the president of RANZCP stated, “The College condemns all forms of violence and human rights abuses and remains deeply concerned about the ongoing conflict in Gaza.” This statement drew criticism from a broad College membership, as some perceived it as having undertones of antisemitism. The message’s exclusive focus on Gaza without acknowledgment of the tragic events on October 7, where Hamas terrorists carried out an attack on Israeli territory, was particularly contentious. It’s crucial for institutions like the RANZCP (which specialises in addressing trauma, and is held to be beacon of understanding, empathy, and inclusivity) to recognise and understand the nuances and sensitivities tied to such conflicts. Additionally, such a masthead should appreciate the significant contributions of Jewish professionals in the realm of psychiatry and recognize how different the field might be without their influence.

In an exploration of the history and progression of psychotherapy, it becomes evident that the modality has been significantly shaped by numerous adept minds, each weaving their unique threads into the ever-expanding tapestry of mental health treatment.

Psychotherapy, a generic term used to describe various psychological treatments that utilise verbal and symbolic means to help individuals eliminate, control, or manage debilitating symptoms, plays a pivotal role in addressing diverse mental health challenges and enhancing overall psychological well-being. Emerging in a historical context rife with both pioneering spirits and tumultuous societal events, the development of psychotherapy has been inextricably linked with the innovative work of numerous practitioners, amongst whom Jewish psychiatrists stand prominently.

From the couches of Freudian psychoanalysis to the logotherapeutic explorations of life’s intrinsic meaning, Jewish psychiatrists have not only made monumental contributions but have also significantly influenced how we perceive, understand, and address mental health today. This essay endeavours to unravel the strands of psychiatric thought and practice intricately woven by Jewish professionals who bravely navigated through periods of societal turbulence, stigma, and innovation to lay foundational stones upon which the edifice of contemporary psychotherapy stands.

In an era where psychological distress was often met with ignorance or disdain, these figures dared to delve into the intricacies of the human psyche, providing pivotal insights into its workings and pioneering methodologies for its treatment. Notably, the cultural, social, and historical contexts in which these psychiatrists were immersed significantly impacted their perspectives and theories, weaving a rich tapestry that spanned across various psychological schools of thought and therapeutic approaches.

Section 1: Background and Historical Context

History of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy

The history of psychiatry and psychotherapy is expansive, punctuated by periods of illuminating insights into the human mind, interspersed with eras that witnessed stagnation and, at times, regressive practices. In the realms of antiquity, mental disturbances were often perceived through a lens imbued with superstition and religious undertones, where divine forces and malevolent spirits were considered to be the arbiters of psychological maladies. Moving forward through medieval periods and into the Renaissance, the understanding of mental health began to gradually entwine with medical and scientific perspectives, albeit still tightly tethered to prevailing mystical and moralistic viewpoints.

As the flames of enlightenment flickered through Europe, pushing the boundaries of knowledge and scientific inquiry, psychiatry began to burgeon as a distinct discipline. The 18th and 19th centuries witnessed the establishment of asylums – the antecedents to modern psychiatric hospitals – and the gradual progression toward a more compassionate and medicalised approach to mental health, though frequently misguided and fraught with ethical concerns.

Social and Historical Context: European Jewry and its Contributions

In tandem with the evolving field of psychiatry, the Jewish communities across Europe, particularly in Central and Eastern regions, were embroiled in their own complex tapestry of cultural, religious, and societal narratives. The Jews, who continue to be marginalised and confronted with pervasive anti-Semitism, nonetheless played a crucial role in various academic, cultural, and scientific domains. Jewish contributions to various fields, including medicine, physics, literature, and indeed, psychiatry, have been significant and transformative.

The crucible of societal adversity and a rich heritage of scholarly pursuit within Jewish communities forged a distinctive context from which many Jewish psychiatrists emerged. Sigmund Freud, an Austrian Jew, was not only a product of his time – grappling with the socio-cultural challenges of fin-de-siècle Vienna – but also a ground-breaking figure whose theories on psychosexual development, the unconscious, and therapeutic techniques catapulted psychiatry into new dimensions. His Jewish identity, intricately interwoven with the broader societal context, indubitably influenced his perspectives and professional trajectory, as it did for numerous Jewish psychiatrists.

Within the Jewish diaspora, the commitment to scholarship and community welfare often converged, providing a fertile ground from which pursuits into understanding the human mind were nurtured. Embodying values that prioritised knowledge, many Jewish individuals were propelled towards academia and professional fields, contributing profoundly to the burgeoning field of psychiatry amidst the broader spectrum of societal, scientific, and philosophical shifts occurring throughout Europe.

As we delve further into the notable contributions of specific Jewish psychiatrists, it becomes evident that their insights and methodologies were not simply isolated beacons of innovation. Instead, they were intimately entwined with their cultural, historical, and personal contexts, manifesting as pivotal elements that have indelibly shaped the course of psychiatric thought and practice.

Section II: Trailblazers in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy 

Sigmund Freud

Embarking on an exploration of Sigmund Freud’s colossal impact on psychiatry invites one into a world where the unconscious mind becomes a vast territory to be deciphered, analysed, and understood. Freud, born into a Jewish family in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, developed the foundational theories that became the bedrock of psychoanalysis amidst a socio-cultural context that grappled with complex dynamics between scientific advancements and prevailing social norms (Gay, 1988). His Jewish heritage, while not overtly influential in his theoretical formulations, played a crucial role in shaping his perspectives and navigations within the broader intellectual and socio-political landscape of his era.

Freud’s seminal theories such as the Oedipus complex, dream interpretation, and the structural model of the psyche, comprising the id, ego, and superego, have left an indelible mark on psychiatric theory and practice. In contemporary psychiatric training, Freudian principles continue to permeate various modalities. Institutions like The Freud Centre in London perpetuate his legacy, serving as a hub for psychoanalytic research, training, and therapy, ensuring that Freud’s pivotal role in shaping psychotherapeutic discourse is perpetually acknowledged and integrated into evolving practices.

Viktor Frankl

Moving from Freudian depths to the existential quest for meaning, Viktor Frankl, an Austrian psychiatrist, and Holocaust survivor, brought forth logotherapy, an approach that positions the search for life’s meaning at the core of human existence. Frankl, having experienced the indescribable horrors of Nazi concentration camps, distilled from his sufferings a psychological perspective that emphasised the intrinsic need for individuals to identify purpose and significance in their lives, outside what they cannot control.

Logotherapy, with its existential and optimistic underpinnings, stresses the idea that despite suffering, individuals can find meaning and, thereby, a reason to persevere. The Viktor Frankl Institute in Vienna exemplifies the ongoing influence of logotherapy, offering training and certification in this therapeutic approach. This ensures that the forthcoming generations of psychiatrists are well-versed with the principles of logotherapy, enabling them to incorporate an existential perspective that accentuates the quest for meaning amidst psychological distress into their practices.

Melanie Klein

Pioneering child psychiatrist Melanie Klein catapulted the psychiatric understanding of children’s inner worlds into new terrains through her innovative work in object relations theory and the introduction of play therapy. Klein, a Jewish woman navigating the professional sphere in the early-to-mid 20th century, developed theories that highlighted the relationships between an individual and their ‘objects,’ or significant others, as pivotal in shaping their internal world and subsequent relationships.

Klein introduced play therapy as a method to explore and comprehend the internal dynamics of children, acknowledging their capacity for complexity, depth, and genuine psychological exploration. Her contributions have found sustained resonance in child and adolescent psychiatry, where play therapy has become a staple technique utilised to access, understand, and aid the psychological worlds of children. The Melanie Klein Trust and several psychoanalytic training institutes worldwide ensure that Kleinian theories continue to be a vital strand within psychiatric training and practice, enhancing the capacity of practitioners to attune themselves to the nuanced psychic lives of their paediatric clients.

Alfred Adler

A pivotal figure in the early years of psychotherapy, Alfred Adler, an Austrian physician, and psychotherapist, significantly influenced our understanding of personality, interpersonal dynamics, and mental health. Adler’s theories underscored the role of societal factors and individual agency in shaping behavior, diverging from Freud’s more deterministic theories. His introduction of the inferiority complex and his emphasis on feelings of inadequacy and their compensatory manifestations in behavior continue to inform therapeutic interventions and personality theories. Adlerian psychology, or Individual Psychology, emphasises the holistic nature of the individual and the role of social interest in well-being. The Alfred Adler Institute, established to preserve and advance his impactful theories, is instrumental in integrating Adlerian principles into modern psychotherapeutic training and practice, contributing to the enrichment of holistic and socially-attuned therapeutic approaches.

Aaron T. Beck

Navigating through the domains of cognitive explorations in psychiatry, Aaron T. Beck stands out with his transformative work in developing Cognitive Therapy (now known as Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy or CBT). Beck, an American psychiatrist of Jewish descent, developed CBT in the 1960s as a structured, short-term, goal-oriented psychotherapy treatment that took a hands-on, practical approach to problem-solving. It aims to change patterns of thinking or behavior that are causing people’s problems and subsequently change the way they feel. The Beck Institute, founded by Aaron Beck and his daughter Judith S. Beck, offers training in CBT and serves as a platform where healthcare professionals gain knowledge and expertise in this evidence-based approach. CBT, widely utilised and respected in modern psychotherapy, serves as a testament to Beck’s profound influence, bridging the gaps between cognition, emotion, and behavior in therapeutic interventions and fundamentally shaping mental health treatment across the globe.

Irvin D. Yalom

Irvin D. Yalom, an American existential psychiatrist and emeritus professor of psychiatry at Stanford University, has significantly impacted psychotherapy, particularly in group settings and existential therapy. Yalom, born into a family of Russian Jewish immigrants, devised influential concepts such as the “here-and-now” principle in group psychotherapy, focusing on present interpersonal interactions to explore and understand the underlying psychological processes of the individuals involved.

Furthermore, his emphasis on existential concerns—death, freedom, isolation, and meaninglessness—has provided a rich framework that enables therapists to explore and navigate the fundamental existential anxieties and potentials of their clients. His teachings and writings, deeply interwoven in psychotherapy training, perpetually guide therapists in facilitating profound existential and interpersonal explorations, ensuring therapeutic spaces where universal human concerns are validated, explored, and integrated.

Gabor Maté

Dr. Gabor Maté, a Hungarian-born Canadian physician, has made significant waves in the modern realm of addiction and trauma psychiatry. He emphasises a compassionate approach towards understanding and treating substance use disorders, often tying the roots of addiction to early childhood experiences and sustained trauma. His work, particularly in densely populated, low-income areas, focuses on holistic, trauma-informed care that seeks to understand and address the underlying emotional and psychological pain that often fuels addictive behaviors. His books and public speaking engagements elucidate his philosophy and approaches, promoting a deeply empathic and understanding approach towards those grappling with addiction and its frequently intertwined relationship with trauma.

Section III: Theoretical Developments and Progression

The roots of psychotherapy and psychiatric understanding have undergone significant transformation and evolution, often concretising, and branching into varied theoretical and practical domains. For instance, Freud’s psychoanalytic principles set forth a cascade that sculpted numerous subsequent developments within the psychoanalytic community and beyond. Anna Freud, his daughter, particularly illuminated the pathways to exploring child psychoanalysis, offering deep insights into the evolving child psyche, and establishing pioneering therapeutic approaches aimed at mitigating childhood disturbances and enhancing psychological development.

Contributions of Successive Jewish Psychiatrists and Psychotherapists

While Freud, Frankl, and Klein laid critical foundations, the successive generations of psychiatrists and psychotherapists ingeniously developed, diverged, and synthesised various theories, thereby expanding the spectrum of understanding, and intervening in mental health. Notably, Eric Berne, a Canadian-born psychiatrist, contributed to this evolving tapestry by developing Transactional Analysis, a psychotherapeutic approach that comprehensively explores social transactions, life scripts, and ego states to facilitate sustainable psychological change. In a different strand, Aaron Beck revolutionised psychotherapy by accentuating the instrumental role of cognitive processes in emotional and behavioural functioning, hence pioneering CBT.

Synthesising Theories and Evolving Practices

The entwining of various theoretical developments within psychiatry and psychotherapy has proffered a rich, multifaceted understanding of the human mind and effective therapeutic interventions. Diverse theories have not evolved in isolation but have rather permeated each other, being modified, refuted, or built upon by successive intellectuals and clinicians. For instance, while Anna Freud was amplifying and modifying her father’s theories within child psychoanalysis, others in the field, like Britain’s John Bowlby, were synthesising psychoanalytic concepts with evolutionary theory, thereby giving rise to attachment theory, which now forms a cornerstone in understanding relational dynamics across the lifespan.

Furthermore, CBT, as pioneered by Beck, became a nexus where cognitive theories intermingled with learning theories, offering a robust, empirically validated therapeutic modality that is widely applied across varied psychological disorders. Even existential and humanistic theories, like those introduced by Frankl, have found resonances and integrations within diverse psychotherapeutic approaches, underscoring the vitality of exploring and affirming meaning within human existence.

In contemporary psychotherapy and psychiatric practice, professionals navigate through a rich, integrative framework where varied theoretical principles inform nuanced, individualised therapeutic interventions. As psychiatric understanding continues to evolve, the intellectual and practical contributions of Freud, Frankl, Klein, and their successors persist, in varied forms, influencing and enriching the realms of psychotherapeutic theory, research, and practice.

Section IV: Impact on Modern Psychotherapy

The integration of theories emanating from the fertile minds of Jewish psychiatrists like Freud, Frankl, and Klein has cultivated a rich, multi-dimensional soil from which contemporary psychotherapy has flourished. Freud’s theories, despite undergoing substantial critique and modification, still significantly permeate varied psychotherapeutic modalities and are routinely encountered in clinical scenarios involving explorative, insight- oriented approaches. His concepts of defence mechanisms, unconscious processes, and the pivotal role of early life experiences remain foundational in understanding and navigating therapeutic processes.

Insights into Practice: Techniques and Approaches

Freud’s techniques such as free association, dream analysis, and interpretation have been adapted and transformed, finding their way into diverse therapeutic models, including psychodynamic therapies and even integrative and humanistic. Frankl’s logotherapy, rooted in the existential perspective, emphasises the crucial role of meaning-making and personal responsibility in alleviating existential vacuum and psychological distress. This perspective has permeated not only existential therapies but also integrative and positive psychology domains, echoing the necessity of affirming and exploring life’s meanings in therapeutic engagements.

Melanie Klein’s object relations theory has vastly influenced psychotherapeutic work with children and adults alike. Her focus on internalised object relations and the interplay of psychic structures provides a lens to explore and understand deep-seated relational patterns, emotional conflicts, and psychological disturbances, profoundly shaping psychodynamic and psychoanalytic therapies.

Influence on Psychiatric Education and Practice

The legacies of these iconic Jewish psychiatrists echo potently in psychiatric education and practice today. Training programs and courses in psychiatry and psychotherapy frequently delve into the historical and theoretical underpinnings introduced by Freud, Frankl, Klein, and their contemporaries and successors. For instance, Freudian psychoanalytic theories, despite their evolution and diversification, find a place in curriculum segments focusing on psychodynamic theories and therapies.

Similarly, the contemplation of existential concerns and the exploration of meaning, as underscored by Frankl, permeate psychiatric education and therapeutic training, enabling upcoming professionals to engage deeply with the existential facets of human experience. Moreover, the therapeutic techniques, diagnostic perspectives, and clinical wisdom rooted in object relations theory form integral components in educating and training mental health professionals to understand and navigate the complex emotional and relational dynamics encountered in therapeutic spaces.

Section V: Alternate Scenario – Hypothetical Development of Psychiatry without Jewish Contributions

Exploring the Hypothetical Trajectory of Psychiatry without Jewish Influence

It is curious to envision the trajectory of psychiatry and psychotherapy without the monumental contributions of Jewish psychiatrists like Freud, Frankl, and Klein. The theories and therapeutic models initiated and developed by them have indisputably permeated and sculpted the foundations and subsequent evolutions within psychiatry. A hypothetical landscape without their inputs would, quite plausibly, lack the deep-seated understanding of unconscious processes, the pivotal role of early childhood experiences in shaping personality, the significant emphasis on exploring and affirming life’s meaning, and the nuanced approach to internal object relations, which have shaped therapeutic processes and psychiatric understanding in fundamental ways.

Contemplating Possible Alternative Figures and Theories

Without the cardinal contributions of these Jewish psychiatrists, it is conceivable that other figures and theories might have emerged and taken a central stage in the progression of psychiatric theories and practices. The broader socio-cultural and scientific contexts, like the industrial revolution and the emerging scientific inquiries into human psychology and behavior, would likely have shaped and informed the developments within psychiatry.

Figures such as John B. Watson, Carl Rogers, and B.F. Skinner, who significantly impacted psychology and therapy with their works on behaviourism and humanistic psychology, might have had even more pronounced influences in shaping the therapeutic models and practices.

Analysis of the Potential Impact on Development and Practice of Psychotherapy

The hypothetical absence of the Jewish contributions to psychiatry and psychotherapy would have potentially reshaped the core principles, techniques, and foci within the field. The profound insights into the unconscious, the intricate relational dynamics rooted in early experiences, and the pivotal role of existential meaning-making, which are now foundational in various psychiatric theories and practices, might have been supplanted by alternative emphases. The resultant theoretical and therapeutic models might have leaned more heavily towards behaviourism, emphasising observable behaviors, or perhaps, a more biological determinism, accentuating the neurobiological and genetic underpinnings of psychiatric phenomena. Moreover, the humanistic and existential threads, which now prominently weave through various psychotherapeutic modalities, might have found alternative expressions or perhaps, different theoretical anchoring within the psychiatric landscape.

Section VI: Reflection on Contemporary Psychiatry and Future Directions

Ongoing Relevance of Jewish Psychiatrists’ Contributions

The echoes of Jewish psychiatrists like Freud, Frankl, and Klein still palpably resonate in the chambers of contemporary therapeutic practices, training, and mental health discourse.

Freud’s concepts, such as the id, ego, and superego, as well as his explorations into the unconscious, continue to form a significant part of the theoretical backbone of various therapeutic models and psychiatric educations. Logotherapy, formulated by Viktor Frankl, forms a staple in the existential therapeutic approach, offering individuals a pathway to explore, understand, and affirm their meaning-making processes amidst suffering and life’s challenges. Klein’s innovative work around object relations and the concept of the paranoid- schizoid and depressive positions profoundly inform therapeutic work across life stages, particularly within psychodynamic orientations.

Even two of the field’s biggest critics, Ronald Laing, and Thomas Szasz, have Jewish heritage. Laing radically shifted perspectives on schizophrenia, suggesting that it could be a transformative experience and a form of healing. He emphasised the existential understanding of mental illness, and the importance of lived experience which underpins so much mental health policy and legislation today. Szasz was best known for his criticisms of the moral and scientific foundations of psychiatry. He challenged the very notion of mental illness and was a staunch critic of involuntary psychiatric treatments, which continues to be relevant in our daily practice.

Future Perspectives: Evolving Theories and Practices

Psychotherapy and psychiatry, whilst maintaining strong historical and theoretical roots, continue to evolve, weaving in new research, perspectives, and modalities. The post- modern era, for instance, has seen a burgeoning interest in integrative and eclectic therapeutic practices, which often blend varied therapeutic models, including psychodynamic, existential, cognitive-behavioural, and humanistic approaches, to cater to the nuanced needs of individuals. The proliferation of research into neurobiology, genetics, and psychopharmacology also introduces added dimensions into psychiatric practices, intertwining biological understandings and interventions with psychotherapeutic processes.

New Paradigms and Approaches

The foundational theories introduced by Jewish psychiatrists have not remained static but have rather evolved, hybridising with other theories and adapting to the emerging needs and understandings within psychiatry and psychotherapy. For instance, psychodynamic therapy, whilst rooted in Freudian psychoanalysis, has integrated newer understandings and techniques, expanding, and diversifying its theoretical and practical applications. Similarly, existential-phenomenological psychotherapy expands upon the existential threads introduced by Frankl, exploring the multi-faceted experiences of being and engaging with existential concerns and life meanings through varied lenses.

As psychiatry evolved beyond its psychoanalytic roots to align more closely with other medical disciplines, numerous Jewish biologists played pivotal roles in shaping our current understanding of psychiatric theory. Contributions in areas like psychosurgery (Moniz), neuroanatomy (Kandel, Andreasen), neurophysiology (Axelrod, Snyder), and genetics (Hyman) can be significantly attributed to Jewish scholars.


Profound and Enduring Impact

The contributions of Jewish psychiatrists to psychotherapy have cast long, intricate shadows, etching indelible marks upon the theoretical, practical, and ethical landscapes of the field. These contributions span across varied theoretical orientations, therapeutic practices, and psychiatric educations, persistently shaping and informing the ways in which psychotherapy understands, engages with, and alleviates human psychological sufferings and struggles. From Freud’s explorations into the unconscious to Frankl’s existential quest for meaning amidst suffering and Klein’s intricate navigation through internal object relations, Jewish psychiatrists have profoundly influenced the foundations and trajectories within psychiatry and psychotherapy and it is perhaps not an exaggeration to state that without the insights, theories, and therapeutic methodologies introduced by Jewish psychiatrists, the discipline would lack some of its most foundational and transformative frameworks.

Multifaceted Contributions and Lasting Legacy

The multifaceted contributions and legacy left by Jewish psychiatrists in mental health care are, arguably, nuanced by historical, cultural, and existential contexts. The atrocities of the Holocaust, and the intergenerational transmissions of traumas and resilience, might partially highlight the inclinations and contributions towards understanding, exploring, and alleviating psychological sufferings and struggles. The deep, pervasive experiences and reflections upon suffering, survival, resilience, identity, and meaning making, particularly within the contexts of profound collective traumas, have possibly seeped into the ways in which Jewish psychiatrists have engaged with, conceptualised, and sought to alleviate psychological struggles and suffering.

Universality of Psychological Theories and Collective Progression

Jewish psychiatrists, whilst rooted in their specific historical, cultural, and existential contexts, have offered theories and practices that resonate with the universal aspects of human experiences, struggles, and desires, extending beyond specific cultural and historical confines. The universality of these theories – exploring the depths of the unconscious, the quests for meanings, the navigations through internal relational worlds, and others – speaks to the collective, shared aspects of human psychological experiences and struggles across times and contexts. It underscores the collective progression of psychiatric knowledge, weaving through varied historical, cultural, existential, and scientific threads, enriching, diversifying, and deepening the understandings and practices within psychiatry and psychotherapy.

In essence, while psychiatry would certainly exist without Jewish contributions, it would undoubtedly be a vastly different field, lacking many of its most transformative insights and compassionate approaches. The legacy of Jewish psychiatrists is not just in their individual theories or practices, but in the very soul of psychiatry—a discipline that seeks to understand, empathise with, and heal the depths of the human experience.

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